This territory was inhabited by various indigenous nations huarpes (south), the olongastas (northwest), the capayanes (in the valleys of Vinchina, Guandacol and Jáchal).
Huarpes inhabited much of what is now known as the Valley of Tulum. Its area of influence extended to the mountains of Zonda, Ullum, Villicum and Pie de Palo, and the hills of Valdivia. Other areas were rooted influence of Bermejo River and Lagoons Guanacache (or Huanacache) and both banks of the Desaguadero River. They were engaged in agriculture and livestock. The groups were located on lands irrigated by canals and ditches networks that they built for guaranteed irrigation of maize, quinoa, beans and squash. Corn was so important in your diet; ate roasted or cooked and dried it in the sun for chuchoca who ate ground. They raised llamas and guanacos for food and transportation. They hunted guanacos, rheas and other small animals, kept the Charqueada meat (sun-dried) long. They also collected rhea eggs and fruits chañar and carob.
The capayanes, related to the diaguitas the Argentine Northwest, lived in the area of the current departments of Jáchal and Church, north of the huarpes populations. They practiced agriculture with the support of artificial irrigation and grew corn kept in semi-subterranean granaries. They lived in villages in mud houses with roofs of sticks and grass. The people Capayán excelled in ceramics: manufactured wide mouth jars with geometric designs.
The Yacampis lived in the Bermejo River Valley and Valle Fertil. The historical documentation mentions that these groups were very numerous and lived primarily livestock flame. They also collected and practiced agriculture. They were also caregivers and livestock breeders in the Spanish stays. They used stone arrowheads, axes, knives, scrapers, beads for necklaces and pipes.
Tourism , the most important international attractions are climbing, with Mercedario hill and from the scientific point of view Ischigualasto, an important paleontological site of strange landforms, dating from the Triassic period. Wine tourism has grown considerably in recent years; also adventure sports like rafting and sand yachting, practiced the latter in a place known as the Pampa del Leoncito, among others. It is also well known for religious tourism, with very visited Oratory of the Deceased Correa.
Climate San Juan has a climate with high continentalidad, ie that has no oceanic influence is dry, low rainfall. Influences climate modeling systems in river regimes, types of soils and vegetation. For example, precipitation of snow – white type are given to high mountains and liquid in rest of the territory, with a significant thermal, annual and daily amplitude, the same being the highest in the Argentina.18
A peculiarity of the province is the presence of a local wind, the Zonda. A very hot, dry wind blowing from the west, is warm and dry due to “Föhn effect” by adiabasis- extreme suffering to go through the high ranges of the Andes, because here are some of the highest peaks of the Hemisphere Western.
The areas of the foothills, the “crossings” and Sierras Pampeanas in San Juan, are usually (in the twentieth century) an arid climate of hills and fields, with oasis of riego.El climate presents a wide temperature range, since winter temperatures are reached which can reach five degrees below zero and summer maximum temperatures exceed forty degrees.
The fauna is distributed depending on the height and the vegetation in a given area, as this is the basis of their diet.
Some of the species that make up the general fauna of this province are highly prized by poachers decimating communities and make animals endangered species. One of the most threatened in the province of San Juan is the vicuna, persecuted for their wool. Also they are endangered iguana, the condor and the red fox and tortoises. It is the case for which this province provides protection to the vicuna is an animal that is in danger of extinction in the region, for this there is the San Guillermo National Park, which was declared by UNESCO as Reserve Biosfera.19
San Juan has a fauna that is represented by a variety of Andean, Patagonian pampas and species. The mammals found in the province are: guanaco, vicuna, fox, puma, European hare, mara, vizcacha, weasel, armadillo, ferret, peccary, nutria, chinchilla and large armadillos. Trout, mackerel, catfish and carp are some fish that inhabit the rivers.
San Juan in 2009 had 15 protected areas that cover more than 22 percent of the total territory. One thing that begins to take value when you know that is the province of largest area covered by special rules of conservation, and that many of these areas are unique on the continent (America) and in the world for its paleontological or wildlife value.